On the 55 plate 120v home unit, and 110 plate 220v unit, you will notice all of the barbs are 1/2 inch. You will need to buy half-inch Inner diameter (I.D.) hose. Please buy the braided food grade hose; it is the strongest and most flexible without kinking and since it is braided it will not cave in on the vacuum or intake side of the pump!
On the bottom of the cell is where you will be feeding the fresh water/electrolyte supply. You will notice that there is a T barb; the purpose is for one side of the barb to run your fresh water feed line, and on the other you can put your flush and drain hose for when you want to empty the unit. You can simply hook a short hose to this side of the barb and plug it or put a valve for even quicker safer draining action.
On the top, you will see 2 half-inch barbs on the home unit, and 4 half inch barbs on the 220v unit. These are your gas and water out-connections and should be hooked to the barbs on the top of your reservoir. The gas and water mix coming out of these barbs will be sent to the top of the water reservoir where the heavy water will fall to the bottom of the tank for recirculation. The lighter HHO gas will stay at the top, where it will be expelled under a slight amount of accumulative pressure to it's intended destination (i.e. air intake of engine or torch tip).
Special NOTE: ALWAYS CLAMP YOUR HOSES!!!! If a hose pops off it is going to spray everywhere!
I highly recommend using the Shurflo series of diaphragm pumps for pumping caustic solution (electrolyte). I also recommend using the 1.4 GPM pump for both the 55 plate home unit, and the 220v unit. You can find these pumps on eBay for around $100 US dollars and they have them in different voltages (12v through 220v).
Again! You are now pressurizing the system! PLEASE CLAMP ALL HOSES! As the hoses get warm the barbs are less likely to hold the hoses on by themselves. You NEED the clamps!
Cooling the electrolyte and keeping the resistance of the cell in good balance:
The only way to maintain the electrolyte temp and in turn the electrolyte PH is to use an external heat exchanger or radiator. I have just recently found a company that manufactures radiators compatible with the caustic electrolyte, and I have these available for you to purchase for $100 US dollars. They work very well and you can choose your desired electrolyte temperatures by the amount of airflow you push through the radiator. The radiator would be installed inline with the pump and the intake of the cell so the water is cooled before it re-entered the cell.
Regardless of how you decide to drive your cell, you will obviously require DC voltage! Do not attempt to apply AC voltage to the cell, the results will be catastrophic. The end plates on the cell are where you want to apply your voltage and this is very simple to do. Using round wire lugs, you will want to take out 2 of the bolts on both sides of the cell and on opposite sides of the plates (using 2 wires: one on each side of the same plate will divide the current across that plate and give a more efficient distribution of current). Put the round lugs around the bolts and tighten the bolts with enough torque to just see the gasket start to show signs of compression. In other words, firm and tight, but obviously not crushing the gasket and bending the plate. We want even torque on all the bolts, this will keep the likelihood of leaks way down. Obviously, you will not want to touch these end plates when the cell is on because there is LIVE VOLTAGE present across these plates!
The sweet spots:
These units seem to really become efficient right in the neighborhood of 2 volts per plate. So, for the 55 plate home unit you are going to want to hit it with 120v DC for optimum efficiency. These units will produce HHO anywhere from 90 volts and up, but at voltages that low your efficiency is less than desirable. For the 220v unit it is the same 2 volts per plate so 220 volts is a good place to be. You can run these units at higher voltages. For example, the 55 plate home unit could be run at 2.3 volts per plate or 130 volts, you are not going to kill the cell.
Please keep this in mind when dealing with electrolyte: cold water has a lower PH than hot water. So if you set your electrolyte level to pull 10 amps when the cell is cold you will ultimately end up with a higher amp draw when the cell heats up and the PH increases!
This part is a bit complicated for some but please bear with me. I will try to make it as simple as possible! You can use anywhere from 5% to 20% electrolyte solution depending on your desired output. Now remember, the cell works most efficiently around 2 volts per plate, so if you only want 5 liters per minute, you want to set your voltage to 120v and add electrolyte mix until you pull enough amps to hit the 5 liters per minute mark and then note that for future reference. Now, here is why this is important. Sure, you could just add 20% electrolyte solution to the water and call it a day BUT You will find that you will be pulling 5 amps at 90 volts and hardly making any gas! Then when you turn it up to 120v you will be making 20 liters per minute! Its all about what you ultimately want to do with the system.
Just to save you some time, let me tell you what 10% electrolyte concentration would be. for each gallon (128 ounces) of distilled water you would add 12 ounces of crystal sodium hydroxide or (LYE) sold in Home Depot, Lowe's, and Ace Hardware and probably almost any hardware store anywhere in the US and Canada, in the plumbing department. This product is sold as drain cleaner and it is a BASE not an ACID, but it will burn your skin if you do not wash it off, and it would certainly hurt you bad if it got in our mouth or eyes. I ALWAYS use safety glasses or better when working with this stuff, ALWAYS!!!!!
The plastic feet on the cell are reversible; you may put them on so they are in space saving mode pointing in or in extra stability mode pointing out. Just make sure that you evenly torque the bolts to match the torque of the rest of the bolts when putting them back in! You can also drill holes in the bottom of the plastic feet to suit your mounting needs!
When you mix the electrolyte do not do it in a closed vessel because it heats up and builds pressure! It will build enough pressure that it will explode anything you seal it up in and throw it all over the place!
Power supply filtering:
In rectified DC, you have what is called AC ripple. In fact using a full wave bridge rectifier you will see up to 45% AC ripple. AC ripple does us NO GOOD! AC ripple is just wasted energy that dissipates in the cell as heat energy. You can cut down on the amount of AC ripple by filtering in one of two ways. You can use a choke or more commonly an electrolytic capacitor. The purer your DC is, the higher your efficiency will be! Keep in mind, if you do decide to filter your output with a capacitor, you will increase your DC voltage by approximately 15%. So, if you are using the cell without a controller and just want to rectify your AC line voltage from your house, you would start with 120v and end up with about 138 volts! That's 2.5 volts per plate!
Foaming will sometimes happen when you first fill the system and start to use it. This is normal and does not mean there is something wrong with your unit. Flush the cell and complete system thoroughly and this should stop happening once it is broken in and the impurity's are flushed out. In extreme foaming situations, I have used hot tub defoamer to stop this from happening. I have also used different styles of inline water filters inline from the pump to the intake of the cell to grab the impurity's and this should stop this from happening immediately. When choosing a filter, make sure that it is not very restrictive, you should be able to blow air through the filter with your mouth pretty easy without straining. The less micron the filter, the easier it will be, remember we are not trying to filter water to drink just to grab the impurities causing the pesky foaming! (If you are going to do the blow test obviously you would do this before putting any electrolyte in or around it!)
Please remember this is all experimental technology! Many variables effect hydrogen-oxygen production. This is not a boxed appliance from Wal*Mart, these are parts for a larger project that you are working on. You are responsible for using these parts safely! Always keep in mind that you are working with high voltage, highly conductive water and an extremely flammable gas with oxidizer present! All safety precautions should be taken at all times!